Etymology of “dialog” and “argument”. The persuasion pattern ‘I show and donʼt just tell’

The history of διάλογος and argūmentum can be foreshadowed as follows. For more details see the summary in chapter 8.

Old Greek δια‑λέγ‑ω meant ‘I sort (and pick), I distinguish (and pick)’ > ‘I select’; alongside there existed an indirect-reflective middle: δια‑λέγ‑ο‑μαι ‘I sort (and pick) for me, I distinguish something for me with regard to its kind or value’ > ‘I weigh something up, deliberate on something for me (particularly on action alternatives)’ > ‘I deliberate, discuss something together with someone (particularly about action alternatives)’ > ‘I talk to someone’ > ‘I speak’.

Old Greek διά‑λογ‑ο‑ς has probably been formed in the 5th century BC as an abstract noun based on διαλέγομαι ‘I deliberate, discuss something together with someone (particularly about action alternatives)’, so that the original meaning was ‘deliberation with someone (especially considering action alternatives)’.

The Proto-Indo-European root of Latin arg‑u‑ō meant possibly ‘flash(‑like): bright / fast’. A common metaphorical shift explains the original meaning of arguō: ‘I make clear’ and hence also ‘I proof’.

Latin arg‑ū‑ment‑u‑m has probably been formed as a nomen instrumenti (not actionis or rei actae) based on arguō ‘I make clear, proof, convict’, so that the original meaning was ‘means to make something clear, to proof something: a proof’ and hence ‘means to substantiate, to justify something, to give reasons for something: a proof, a reasoning asser­tion’ > ‘a reasoning assertion’.

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The Determiner Phrase and the Weak Declension in the History of German

#1. Abstract. Determiner phrase and weak declension: explanations with regard to the economy of language use and long-term typological tendencies (OV-VO change, reduction of unstressed syllables).

The core of this text was presented in summer 2010. It was published as Stefan Müller: Zur Determinativphrase in der Geschichte des Deutschen; but on account of erroneous editorial interference it is better to use the text available here cited as Müller 2011a. Moreover, the print version is not as easily available anyway.

A sketch of the content:
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An annotation workaround: Gesandtenannotation

This workaround was used to produce the transcriptions of http://quellen-perspectivia.net/russische_relationen, e.g. http://quellen-perspectivia.net/de/russische_relationen/0019. In the following text, some background is provided.

Plain text almost always is not enough, unfortunately, at least when preparing editions. Even a mere transcription often requires that phenomena are digitally saved which cannot be represented as a linear sequence of unicode characters: There might be non-segmental phenomena like color or underlining or a position above the line, and there might be peculiar circumstances, e.g. an apparent change of scribe, which are worth being noted. (These phenomena may affect arbitrary parts of the text, Continue reading An annotation workaround: Gesandtenannotation